Detailed Table of Contents

  Title Page

  Note on Usage (including fonts)

  Introduction

  Table of Contents

Chapter I. The Alphabet

  Letters and Pronunciation

1

Notes on the Letters

  g, d and z

2

  q, c, f, x, y

3

  i and u (the semivowels) 

4

  The Seven Letters Derived from Demotic 

5

  Older unused consonants 

6

  The Vowels 

7

  The Diphthongs 

8

  Non-diphthongs

9

Change of Consonants

  n before b, m and p

10

  s before `

11

  Contractions

12

  Metathesis

13

Change of Vowels

  w after m or n

14

  o before 6 or 4 (representing old h)

15

  Contraction of Vowels

16

Chapter II. Syllables and Words

  Definition

17

  Kinds

18

  Accent or tone

19

  Tone Shift

20

  Compound nouns

21

  Induced vocalic changes

22

  The Superlinear Stroke or Syllable Marker

23

  Nouns ending in -e in conjunction with another word

24

  Three Forms or Vowel Structures

25

  The Absolute Form

26

  The Construct Form

27

  The Pronominal Form

28

Word Division

  Word Division (MSS)

29

  Word Division (Printed)

30

  Long Superlinear Stroke

31

  Abbreviated Greek Words

32

  Greek Words Spelled Phonetically

33

  Punctuation

34

Chapter III. Morphology

I. Nouns (non-verbal forms)

Pronouns

  The Suffix Pronouns

35

  Uses After Prepositions

36

  As Subject of Verbal Auxiliaries

37

  As Possessives

38

  Forms of the Suffix (1st poss sing)

39

  2nd fem sing

40

  3rd fem sing

41

  2 com pl

42

  3 com pl -ou

43

  3 com pl -sou

44

  The Independent Pronouns

45

  Uses of Independent Pronoun

46

  Pronoun of Emphasis or Contrast

47

  Absolute Forms of the Possessive Pronoun

48

  Absolute as Substantive

49

  The Possessive Adjective

50

  The Possessive Article

51

  The Demonstrative Pronoun

52

  Absolute Form

53

  Construct Form with et.m-mau

54

  Interrogative Pronouns

55

Nouns

Gender

  General Rule

56

  Exceptions

57

  Formed from 3 m/f sing Verb

58

  Compound Nouns

59

Prefixes

Noun Prefixes

  Common

60

  Other Noun Prefixes

61

  Verb Prefixes

62

  Particle Prefixes

63

  Collectives, serial, profession

64

Number

  General

65

Masculine Plurals

  Nouns ending in -o

66

  Nouns ending in -e

 

  Plural -hu

67

  Plural -eeu

68

  Long Vowel Preceding Ending in -t

69

  Irregular

70

  Short Vowel Preceding Ending in -t

71

  Plural Formed by Adding -e

72

  Plural Formed by Moving Tone 

73

  Broken Plural

74

  Irregular 

75

Feminine Plurals

  Ending in -e

76

  Ending in -h

77

  Ending in -w

78

  Irregular 

79

Chapter IV. The Article

  The Definite Article

80

  Position

81

  Forms

82

  With time words

83

  To express the vocative

84

  The Indefinite Article

85

  Uses of Indefinite Article

86

  With Nouns of Substance or Material

87

Omission of Article

In Compound Words

  Two Nouns

88

  Noun Linked to Preceding Verbal Form

89

  Linked by Preposition

90

  Enumerating Nouns

91

  In Negative Sentences Expecting a Negative Answer

92

  In Precise Adverbial Phrases

93

  With Nouns Taking Suffixes

94

  Misconstrued Words

95

  Apposition 

96

The Genitive

  History

97

  Linkage by the Particle n-

98

  Linkage by the Particle nte-

99

  nte with Qualified Nouns

100

The Adjective

  Relative Clause for Adjective

101

  Number and Gender

102

  Ending in -e

103

  The Adjective as Substantive 

104

Position

  (1) Noun in Absolute

105

  (2) Noun in Construct

106

  (3) Linked by n- (most common)

107

  (4) Before the Noun

108

  Concord

109

  thr=, ouaa= and mauaa=

110

  ke

111

  Combined with oua and laau

112

  Before Noun and Preceded by Definite or Possessive Article

113

Comparison

  Comparative

114

  The Superlative

115

Chapter V. The Numerals

  Sahidic and Bohairic Practice

116

  The Cardinal Numbers

117

Formation of Composite Numerals

11 through 99

  Juxtaposition

118

  Combination Through mn-

119

Hundreds and Thousands

  Construct and Absolute Forms

120

  Tens Followed by Hundreds

121

  Ciphers with and without mn-

122

Syntax of the Cardinal Numbers

  General

123

  Notes on the Numeral One

124

  Notes on the Numeral Two

125

  Distributive Usage

126

  Fractions

127

  Multiplication

128

The Ordinal Numbers

  Formation

129

  Adjectival Usage

130

Notation of Time

  General

131

  The Month

132

  The Day

133

  Lesser Divisions of Time

134

Dating

  Early

135

  After the Arab Conquest

136

Chapter VI. The Verb

Structure

  The Two Forms

137

The Infinitive

  Formation

138

  Meaning

139

  Forms

140

  The Qualitative

141

  Qualitative only verbs

142

  Meaning

143

  With nhu as a Future 

144

  As Substitute for the Adjective 

145

Chapter VII. Verb Classes 1

  General Remarks

146

  Abbreviations Describing Classes

147

  Class I: 2 Lit

148

  Mixed 2 Lit/3 Lit Verbs

149

  2 Lit Verbs Without Initial Consonant

150

  2 Lit Verbs Without Final Consonant

151

  Monosyllabic Irregular Verbs (3 Lit forms in r

152

  Class II: 2 Lit Gem

153

  Class III: 2 Lit

154

  Verbs ending in e

155

  Middle Weak Verbs

156

  Model knos

157

  Model 4lhl

158

  Model ou`ai

159

  Formative Vowel a in Last Syllable

160

  Two Verbs with Formative Vowel o

160a

Chapter VIII. Verb Classes 2

Class IV: 3 Lit Inf 

  Formation and Model 4ike

161

  Common Verbs

162

  Model ra4e

163

  Model kn-ne

164

  Model pwwne

165

Class V:

  Formation

166

  Model br-br-

167

  Class VI: 4 Lit Inf

168

  Class VII: 5 Lit

169

  Class VII: Doubled Vowel after 1st Radical

170

Causative Verbs

  General Remarks, Formation with s-

171

  Verbs with ` as the 1st Radical

172

Formation with Prefix t-

  Formation Verbs with Feminine Form in Qual Coalescence to Form q

173

 

174

 

175

  Elision of Prefix t-

176

  Compound Verbs

177

Greek Verbs

  Formation

178

  Phonetic Spelling of Greek Verbs

179

Chapter IX. Conjugation

  Old Egyptian Method

180

Three Survivors

  pe`e

181

  Adjective Verbs

182

  naiat=, Blest

183

  Existential Verbs oun To be and mn-  Not to be

184

Conjugation by Auxiliaries 

  General

185

  Forms of the Auxiliaries 

186

Durative and Limitative Tenses

  Table of Pronominal Forms, Durative Tenses

188

Present Tenses 

  I Present

189

  With Undefined Subject

190

  Uses of I Present

191

  II Present

192

  Negation of the Present

193

The Imperfect 

  Definition

194

  With the Particle pe

195

  Negation of the Imperfect 

196

The Circumstantial 

  Form and Function

197

  Introducing a Second Verb

197a

  Negation of the Circumstantial 

198

Chapter X. Limitative Tenses

  Composition and Nature

199

  Table of Pronominal Forms, Limitative Tenses

199a

Perfect Tenses

  The Perfect (I Perfect)

200

  Negation of I Perfect 

201

II Perfect

  Description

202

  Negation of the II Perfect 

203

Tenses of Habitude

  General and I Habitude

204

  Negation of I Habitude

205

  II Habitude

206

  Negation of II Habitude

207

Future Tenses

  Origin and Form

208

I and II Future

  I Future

209

  With `pi or `pe

210

  II Future

211

  Future Circumstantial

212

  Negation of I and II Future

213

  Future Imperfect

214

  Negation of Future Imperfect

215

  III Future 

217

  Negation of III Future

218

  IV Future 

219

  The Optative

220

  Negation of the Optative

221

Tenses of Unfulfilled Action

  Table

222

  Auxiliary 4ant.3-.swtm-

223

  Auxiliary m-pat.3--.swtm-

224

Chapter XI. The Conjunctive

  Table of Forms

225

  Uses of the Conjunctive

226

  The Conjunctive after Verbs of Wishing, Commanding, Allowing

227

  The Conjunctive in Direct Speech

228

  The Conjunctive with Greek Conjunctions

229

  Negation of the Conjunctive

230

  Compound Tenses, Auxiliaries, ‘Until’, Pluperfect

231

Impersonal Verbs

  Generally

232

  ouon and m-mon

233

  With ounte=, mn-te=

234

  Position of the Object

235

  Adverbial m-mau

235n

  Nominal Object Introduced by n-

236

  6aps

237

The Imperative

  Form

238

  Preserved Old Imperative Forms

239

  Irregular Verbs

240

  Second Imperative Replaced by Conjunctive

241

  Negation of the Imperative

242

The Infinitive

  Uses of the Infinitive

243

  Negation of the Infinitive

244

The Simple Infinitive

  Followed by the Genitive

245

  Following 6n-

246

  Following 6n-

247

The Anarticular Infinitive 

  As Subject

248

  As Genitive

249

  As Direct Object in Compound Verbs

250

  After Prepositions

251

  n-- as Object after Certain Verbs

252

  The Potential Infinitive

253

The Causative Infinitive 

  Usage

254

  Preceded by Auxiliaries 

255

  Preceded by a Preposition 

256

  Preceded by mn-.n-.sa

257

  With 6n-

258

  The Passive

259

Chapter XII. Particles

Prepositions 

  Types: Simple Prepositions

260

  e-, ero= (2 pl erwtn-)

261

  n-- and m-mo=

262

  m-mo= (Possession/Genitival)

262a

  n-- and na=

263

  mn-- and nm-ma=

264

  oube-, oubh=

265

  oute-, outw=

266

  4a-, 4aro=

267

  6i-, 6iw(w)=

268

  6a-, 6aro=

269

  6ht=

270

  6n--, n-.6ht=

271

Compound Prepositions

  Formation

272

Listing 

  Compounds with e

273

  etbe-, etbhht=

274

  Compounds with n

275

  Compounds with 6a

276

  Compounds with 6i

277

  a`n-- (e`n--), a`n-t- (e`n-t=) 

278

  `in

279

  Greek Prepositions Used in Coptic 

280

Chapter XIII. The Adverb

  Formation

281

Adverbial Phrases 

  With e-

282

  With n-

283

  With 6n--

284

  With Other Adverbs

285

  Greek Adverbs

286

Conjunctions 

  General

287

  List by Function

289

Notes on Conjunctions 

  auw

290

  auw on

291

  `n-, `en-

292

  n-to3, 6ww3, -2e, n-tooun

293

  `e 

  General

294

  Usage

295

Interjections 

  eis, eis.6hte (6hhne, 6hhpe), ouoi, 6amoi

296

  6a(e)io, m-pwr

297

Chapter XIV. Syntax

The Sentence 

  Types

298

The Verbal Sentence 

  Form

299

  Groups

300

Group I: Subject Stands First 

  1st or 2nd Person Subject

301

  Strengthening of Subject

302

  Formation of Adjectival Predicate Equivalent

303

Predicate is an Adverb or Equivalent 

  With Normal Subject

304

  With Pronominal Subject

305

Group II: Predicate Stands First 

  Description

306

  When Subject Expressed by a Noun

307

  Concord of Particle and Pronominal Subject

308

  Emphasis  by Order

309

  Past Tense of the Non-Verbal Sentence

310

  Circumstantial Use of the Non-Verbal Sentence

311

Negation of the Non-Verbal Sentence 

  Method

312

  Predicate Only Negated

313

  Remarks on the Non-Verbal Sentence

314

The Verbal Sentence 

  Description

315

  The Durative Verbal Sentence

316

  The Limitative Verbal Sentence

317

Word Order in the Verbal Sentence 

  Normal

318

With the Dative 

  When the Dative is Pronominal

319

  When the Object is Pronominal

320

The Subject 

  The Normal Position

321

  Use of Pronominal Forms of Auxiliaries

322

  Emphasis through Interjection

323

  Representation by Pronominal Auxiliary

324

  Use of n-2i- after the Causative Infinitive

325

The Object 

The Direct Object 

  Position and Form

326

  Use of e-, ero=

327

  Use with n-, m-mo

  Older Form/Newer Form with n-, m-mo=

328

Oblique Object 

  Oblique Object/Indirect Object

329

  Greek Verbs

330

  e-, ero= with Verbs of Perception or Mental Action

331

  With Intransitive Verbs

332

  Summary

332a

  Emphasis of the Object

333

The Adverb 

Position 

  Normal Position

334

  Exceptions

335

  As Near-Compound Verbs

336

Chapter XV. Forms of Speech

  Direct and Indirect Speech

337

  Coordination of Sentences

338

  Greek Conjunctions

338a

  Commands and Prohibitions

339

  Wishes

340

Questions 

  Forms (Description)

341

  As a Statement to Be Understood as a Question

342

  With an Interrogative Pronoun or Adverb Before or After the Verb

343

  At the Beginning of the Sentence: a4, nim, a6ro=, etbe.ou, ouhr

344

  After the Verb: ou, twn, e.twn, ebol twn, tnau, 4a.tnau

345

  With an Interrogative Particle Beginning the Sentence

346

Double Questions 

  Linkage: `n-, `n--  m-mon

347

  Expected Answer

348

  Indirect Questions

349

Relative Clauses 

  Types

350

  With Undefined Antecedent

351

  Non-Verbal

352

  Use of  the Resumptive Pronoun

353

  Negation

354

  With Defined Antecedent

355

  Using et

356

  Using etere-

357

  When the Subject of the Relative Clause is Pronominal

358

  When the Relative Clause Contains an Imperfect or Tense of Habitude

359

  Before the Perfect Tense

360

  When the Relative Clause Contains a Negative Statement

361

  When the Relative Clause Contains oun or (m)mn--

362

  When the Relative Clause Contains a Non-Verbal Sentence with pe, te or ne

363

  Remarks on Relative Clauses

 

  Omission of the Relative Pronoun

364

  Use of et- with Consecutive Relative Clauses

365

  When Used in a Descriptive Sense

366

  When Preceded by a Non-Verbal Sentence

367

  The Relative Substantive

368

Chapter XVI. Adverbial Clauses

Final Clauses 

  Simple Form

369

  Introduced by the Conjunction `e, `eka(a)s

370

  With the Greek Conjunctions 6wste, mhpws, mhpote

371

  Conjunctive without Introductory Conjunction

372

  Causal Clauses

373

Conditional Clauses 

  Types

374

Real Conditional Clauses 

Open 

  Defined

375

  Introduced by eie

376

Prospective Conditions 

  Defined

377

  Negation

378

  Introduced by e4wpe in the Protasis

379

Irreal Conditions 

  Defined

380

  With e4wpe Introducing the Apodosis

381

Remarks on the Conditional Clause 

  Order of Components

382

  Except, Unless

383

  With a Concessive Force

384

Temporal Clauses 

Types 

  Circumstantial

385

  With Reference to a Point in Time

386

Past Temporal Clauses 

  Past Temporal Auxiliary and Negation

387

  `in- Followed by II Perfect

388

  mn-.n-.sa + Causative Infinitive

389

  e.a.3.swtm- and e.m-p.3.swtm-

390

  Contemporaneous Temporal Clauses

391

  6m-.p.tre.3.swtm-

392

Prospective Temporal Clauses 

  er4an and 6otan

393

  To Express a Temporal Clause With Reference to the Future

394

  4ant.3.swtm- and m-pat.3-.swtm-

395

Negation 

  Three Methods

396

  1. Negative Particles: n- . . . an

396.1

  (Uncommon in Qual)

397

  2. Negative Auxiliaries

398

  3. tm--

399